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Русский алфавит | Russian Alphabet

Updated: Nov 22, 2023

Изучение алфавита – первый шаг к изучению языка. Даже если вы не планируете учить язык целиком, знание алфавита поможет вам, когда вы будете путешествовать, потому что вы сможете читать все вывески на улицах и в магазинах.

Learning the alphabet is the first step to learning a language. Even if you don't plan to learn the whole language, knowing the alphabet will help you when you travel because you can read all the signs on the streets and in the shops.

Русский алфавит также известен как кириллица. В нём 33 буквы: 10 гласных, 21 согласная и 2 знака: ъ - твёрдый знак и ь - мягкий знак. Вот как выглядит русский алфавит.

The Russian alphabet is also known as Cyrillic. It has 33 letters: 10 vowels, 21 consonants, and 2 signs: ъ - hard sign and ь - soft sign. This is what the Russian alphabet looks like.

Выучить новый алфавит может показаться сложной задачей, но это относительно просто. Большинство изучающих осваивает русский алфавит за несколько недель.

Learning a new alphabet may seem like a daunting task, but it's relatively easy. Most students master the Russian alphabet in a few weeks.

Самое замечательное в русском языке это то, что мы можем произнести почти все слова так, как их пишем, в отличие от английского, где произношение слова может быть неясным из его письменной формы. Поэтому выучив русский алфавит, вы можете прочитать любое слово, фразу или предложение.

The great thing about Russian is that we can pronounce almost all words the way we write them, unlike English where the pronunciation of a word may not be clear from its written form. Therefore, having learned the Russian alphabet, you can read any word, phrase, or sentence.

В русском языке каждая буква соответствует одному звуку, в отличие от английского, где две буквы могут составлять один звук, например «sh» дают звук "ш". В русском языке это одна буква "Ш".

In Russian, each letter corresponds to one sound, unlike in English, where two letters sometimes make up one sound, such as "sh" giving a sound "sh". In Russian, this is one letter "Ш".

А теперь давайте внимательно посмотрим на буквы русского алфавита и выучим их. Для удобства мы разобьём алфавит на группы.

And now let's take a close look at the letters of the Russian alphabet and learn them. For convenience, we will divide the alphabet into groups.

Русские буквы, которые выглядят и звучат как английские буквы.

Russian letters that look and sound like English letters.

А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat".

К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the English "c" sound in words like "cat".

М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike English, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom)

O o - When stressed, we pronounce it like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "А".

Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written (and italic) form is "т". It should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the English letter "м")

Русские буквы, которые похожи на английские, но звучат по-другому.

Russian letters that look like English but sound different.

В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the English letter "v").

Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes".

Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the English letter "n").

Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the English letter "r").

С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the English letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "c" sound in the English words "center" and "cent".)

У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root".

Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the Mexican pronunciation of "x" in "Mexico".

Русские буквы, которые выглядят необычно, но звучат знакомо.

Russian letters that look unusual but sound familiar.

Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the English letter "b").

Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the English letter "g").

Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the English letter "d").

З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the English letter "z").

И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the English letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the English "u").

Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the English letter "l").

П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the English letter "p").

Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the English letter "f").

Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".

Новые русские буквы, которые выглядят и звучат не как английские.

The new Russian letters that look and sound different from English.

Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the English word "you").

Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard".

Ё ё - Pronounced like "yo" in "yogurt". (Note: In modern Russian, you may find this letter simply written as Е е.)

Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in the color "beige". (As there is no English symbol for this sound, we usually represent it as "zh")

Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its".

Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church".

Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut.

Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" in "sheet" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ".

Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tongue slightly back in your mouth.)

Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "" is like the "y" in "boy".

Знаки - Signs

Эти буквы не имеют звука сами по себе, но всё же считаются буквами.

These letters have no sound on their own but are still considered letters.

Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between syllables.

Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto the letter before it.)

Примечание о гласных

A note about vowels

Вы, наверное, заметили, что гласные часто имеют две формы: твердую и мягкую. Поэтому они составляют пары.

You may have noticed that vowels often have two forms: hard and soft. So we make up pairs.

А (a) Я (ya)

Э (e) Е (ye)

У (oo) Ю (yoo)

О (o) Ё (yo)

Ы и И тоже составляют пару, хотя они и не следуют этому шаблону.

Ы and И also form a pair, although they do not follow this pattern.

Мягкие гласные смягчают согласные, за которыми они следуют.

Soft vowels soften the consonants they follow.

Нет (No) - Pronounced "n’et". This is one syllable.

Семь (Seven) - Pronounced, "s’em".

Пять (Five) - Pronounced "p’at’"

Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "m’e-tro".

Russian Alphabet
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